There are two types of soft errors, chip-level soft error and system-level soft error. of Research and Development, 40(1):51-72, 1996. J. In the presence of inexplicable system failures, software developers and system administrators sometimes point to possible occurrences of soft errors without solid evidence. In SIGMETRICS, pages 35-46, 1999. A. http://phabletkeyboards.com/soft-error/soft-memory-error.php
We believe the assumption is reasonable because soft errors are typically due to external environmental factors (e.g., particle strikes) while hard errors are largely due to internal chip properties. Walsh. May and M. A soft error will not damage a system's hardware; the only damage is to the data that is being processed.
Basically, you got pawned... The BIOS error-recording policies vary significantly from machine to machine. This approach, however, often incurs performance overhead, area overhead (if copies of latches are used to store data), and power overhead, though is considerably more area-efficient than modular redundancy. Therefore a periodic memory touching interval =30.48minutes is needed for achieving 2% application slowdown bound.
Hardware layout: In the IBM Blue Spruce experiment, O'Gorman et al. suggested that the main source of cosmic ray comes from straight above. Controlling alpha particle emission rates for critical packaging materials to less than a level of 0.001 counts per hour per cm2 (cph/cm2) is required for reliable performance of most circuits. Technical report, Sony Corporation and RCNP Osaka University, 2001. T. Dram Soft Error Rate If the data is rewritten, the circuit will work perfectly again.
External links Soft Errors in Electronic Memory - A White Paper - A good summary paper with many references - Tezzaron Jan 2004. Soft Error Rate Calculation The memory controller typically signals the BIOS firmware when an error is discovered. We discuss some implementation issues in practice. As a result, for an equal-capacity comparison, the probability of a particle hitting any cell in today's memory is much lower than that of a decade ago.
If all three masking effects fail to occur, the propagated pulse becomes latched and the output of the logic circuit will be an erroneous value. Soft Error Band Overall, results suggest that both controller direct probing and user-level monitoring can discover soft errors at respective targeted environments. At the same time, it works best with non-ECC memory since the common SEC-DED feature in ECC memory would automatically correct single-bit errors and consequently our user-level tool cannot observe them. In the spacecraft industry this kind of error is called a single event upset.
We examine three applications in our test: 1) the Apache web server running the static request portion of the SPECweb99 benchmark; 2) MCF from SPECCPU2000 -- a memory-intensive vehicle scheduling program https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=866049 We use the memory controller direct checking approach in this measurement. Soft Error Vs Hard Error This is much lower than previously-reported error rate (200-5000FIT per Mbit) that we summarized in Section1. 4. Sram Soft Error Rate Therefore we employ the user-level monitoring approach in this measurement.
F. have a peek at these guys Assessing fault sensitivity in MPI applications. Muhlfeld, and C. System-level errors may be caused by power issues, running out of specification (overclocked too far, for example) and software issues that occur when memory is written to incorrectly. Difference Between Soft Error And Hard Error
Scaling and technology issues for soft error rates. Muhlfeld, C. Software probing: We augment the OS to periodically probe appropriate memory controller registers and acquire desired error information. http://phabletkeyboards.com/soft-error/soft-error-trends-and-mitigation-techniques-in-memory-devices.php This is important since we target production systems hosting real live applications and our monitoring must be long running to be effective.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In electronics and computing, a soft error is a type of error where Bit Flip Memory Error Traditionally, DRAM has had the most attention in the quest to reduce, or work-around soft errors, due to the fact that DRAM has comprised the majority-share of susceptible device surface area P.
IBM J. In 4th Annual Research Conf. IEEE Trans. Soft Errors In Advanced Computer Systems Fu, D.
Soft errors involve changes to data—the electrons in a storage circuit, for example—but not changes to the physical circuit itself, the atoms. At low energies many neutron capture reactions become much more probable and result in fission of certain materials creating charged secondaries as fission byproducts. J. http://phabletkeyboards.com/soft-error/soft-error-ecc.php Dimitrijevic, D.
Radiation hardening is often accomplished by increasing the size of transistors who share a drain/source region at the node.