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Soft Error Mitigation Techniques

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Cosmic ray flux depends on altitude. Ziegler led a program of work at IBM which culminated in the publication of a number of papers (Ziegler and Lanford, 1979) demonstrating that cosmic rays also could cause soft errors. The Community for Technology Leaders Toggle navigation Libraries & Institutions About Resources RSS Feeds Newsletter Terms of Use Peer Review Subscribe LOGIN CSDL Home IEEE Transactions on Computers 2012 vol. Thus, accessing data stored in DRAM causes memory cells to leak their charges and interact electrically, as a result of high cells density in modern memory, altering the content of nearby weblink

The computer tries to interpret the noise as a data bit, which can cause errors in addressing or processing program code. If all three masking effects fail to occur, the propagated pulse becomes latched and the output of the logic circuit will be an erroneous value. In critical designs, depleted boron—​​consisting almost entirely of boron-11—​​is used, to avoid this effect and therefore to reduce the soft error rate. Mukherjee, S, "Computer Glitches from Soft Errors: A Problem with Multiple Solutions," Microprocessor Report, May 19, 2008. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/12/6156497/05710884.pdf

Soft Error Vs Hard Error

This counterintuitive result occurs for two reasons. rgreq-1987adb70b42b6ddd6112805bb0ad721 false Soft error From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with software error. Recent advances in electronic technologies have allowed remarkable improvements in their performance. Several techniques have been presented to protect combinational logic and reduce the overall circuit Soft Error Rate (SER).

SomaniReadData provided are for informational purposes only. doi:10.1109/TNS.2004.839134. In combinational logic, this effect is transient, perhaps lasting a fraction of a nanosecond, and this has led to the challenge of soft errors in combinational logic mostly going unnoticed. Your cache administrator is webmaster.

Our second technique, STEM, while tolerating soft errors, adds timing error detection capability to guarantee reliable execution in aggressively clocked designs that operate beyond worst-case clock frequency. Institutional Sign In By Topic Aerospace Bioengineering Communication, Networking & Broadcasting Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems Computing & Processing Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas Engineering Profession Fields, Waves & Electromagnetics General Highly reliable systems use error correction to correct soft errors on the fly. INDEX TERMS Soft errors, adaptive systems, overclocking, error detection, reliability, performance.

IEEE. Several research efforts addressed soft errors by proposing error detection and recovery via hardware-based redundant multi-threading.[13][14][15] These approaches used special hardware to replicate an application execution to identify errors in the Tools and models that can predict which nodes are most vulnerable are the subject of past and current research in the area of soft errors. The failure of even a few products in the field, particularly if catastrophic, can tarnish the reputation of the product and company that designed it.

Soft Error Rate Calculation

Other locations are similarly affected.[citation needed] Energetic neutrons produced by cosmic rays may lose most of their kinetic energy and reach thermal equilibrium with their surroundings as they are scattered by https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_error An SEU is logically masked if its propagation is blocked from reaching an output latch because off-path gate inputs prevent a logical transition of that gate's output. Soft Error Vs Hard Error Unfortunately, a higher Qcrit also means a slower logic gate and a higher power dissipation. Sram Soft Error Rate Burying a system in a cave reduces the rate of cosmic-ray induced soft errors to a negligible level.

This nuclear reaction is an efficient producer of an alpha particle, 7Li nucleus and gamma ray. have a peek at these guys Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. James F. Nagai, K. Soft Errors In Memory

Your cache administrator is webmaster. Since a logic circuit contains many nodes that may be struck, and each node may be of unique capacitance and distance from output, Qcrit is typically characterized on a per-node basis. Since the area and power overhead of radiation hardening can be restrictive to design, the technique is often applied selectively to nodes which are predicted to have the highest probability of http://phabletkeyboards.com/soft-error/soft-error-trends-and-mitigation-techniques-in-memory-devices.php The susceptibility of devices to upsets is described in the industry using the JEDEC JESD-89 standard.

Thermal neutrons are also produced by environmental radiation sources such as the decay of naturally occurring uranium or thorium. For comparison, the count rate of a typical shoe's sole is between 0.1 and 10 cph/cm2. Another common concept to correct soft errors in logic circuits is temporal (or time) redundancy, in which one circuit operates on the same data multiple times and compares subsequent evaluations for

This is in contrast to package decay induced soft errors, which do not change with location.[5] As chip density increases, Intel expects the errors caused by cosmic rays to increase and

The rate of upsets in aircraft may be more than 300 times the sea level upset rate. Ars Technica. Therefore, soft error mitigation has become a compulsory requirement for an increasing number of applications, which operate from the space to the ground level. It is typically expressed as either the number of failures-in-time (FIT) or mean time between failures (MTBF).

Takahisa (Osaka University), 2001. Boron-11, used at low concentrations as a p-type dopant, does not contribute to soft errors. For instance, many failures per million circuits due to soft errors can be expected in the field if the system does not have adequate soft error protection. this content MillerRead full-textLow Overhead Soft Error Mitigation Techniques for High-Performance and Aggressive Designs.Article · Jan 2012 Naga Durga Prasad AvirneniArun K.

Soft errors typically can be remedied by cold booting the computer. This involves increasing the capacitance at selected circuit nodes in order to increase its effective Qcrit value. In this paper, we propose two efficient soft error mitigation schemes, namely, Soft Error Mitigation (SEM) and Soft and Timing Error Mitigation (STEM), using the approach of multiple clocking of data Our first technique, SEM, based on distributed and temporal voting of three registers, unloads the soft error detection overhead from the critical path of the systems.

Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2011 Weichen LiuJiang XuXuan Wang+5 more authors ...Zhehui WangRead full-textShow morePeople who read this publication also readSoft Error Mitigation Schemes for High Performance and Aggressive