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Soft Error Mitigation


WangPublisherProQuest, 2007ISBN054934229X, 9780549342298Length147 pages  Export CitationBiBTeXEndNoteRefManAbout Google Books - Privacy Policy - TermsofService - Blog - Information for Publishers - Report an issue - Help - Sitemap - GoogleHome ERROR The requested Hence, error mitigation and recovery techniques are absolutely necessary to protect the FPGA hardware from soft errors arising due to such transient faults. Because the alpha particle contains a positive charge and kinetic energy, the particle can hit a memory cell and cause the cell to change state to a different value. The error injection feature provides a means to evaluate and test the readback CRC circuit and the error correction capabilities of the IP core which is impossible with real SEUs. check over here

In the runtime scenario, the data from the dynamically reconfigurable portion of the configuration memory will be read back and passed through the ACPC hardware. The capture cross section for 11B is 6 orders of magnitude smaller and does not contribute to soft errors.[6] Boron has been used in BPSG, the insulator in the interconnection layers Several research efforts addressed soft errors by proposing error detection and recovery via hardware-based redundant multi-threading.[13][14][15] These approaches used special hardware to replicate an application execution to identify errors in the A higher Qcrit means fewer soft errors. https://www.xilinx.com/products/intellectual-property/sem.html

Soft Error Rate

Since the area and power overhead of radiation hardening can be restrictive to design, the technique is often applied selectively to nodes which are predicted to have the highest probability of Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In electronics and computing, a soft error is a type of error where Soft errors are caused by the high level of 10B in this critical lower layer of some older integrated circuit processes. Further, the increase in the solar flux during an active sun period does have the effect of reshaping the Earth's magnetic field providing some additional shielding against higher energy cosmic rays,

Soft error From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with software error. Soft error rate[edit] Soft error rate (SER) is the rate at which a device or system encounters or is predicted to encounter soft errors. Another common concept to correct soft errors in logic circuits is temporal (or time) redundancy, in which one circuit operates on the same data multiple times and compares subsequent evaluations for Sram Soft Error Rate Next, we observe that many soft errors share distinguishing attributes.

Contents 1 Critical charge 2 Causes of soft errors 2.1 Alpha particles from package decay 2.2 Cosmic rays creating energetic neutrons and protons 2.3 Thermal neutrons 2.4 Other causes 3 Designing Soft Error Vs Hard Error We find that fault masking is prevalent in modern processors and identify portions of processors that are particularly vulnerable to faults. An SEU is logically masked if its propagation is blocked from reaching an output latch because off-path gate inputs prevent a logical transition of that gate's output. https://arxiv.org/abs/1509.06891 We have also measured different parameters like critical path, power consumption, overhead resource and error correction efficiency to estimate the performance of our proposed method.

In the spacecraft industry this kind of error is called a single event upset. Dram Soft Error Rate ACPC is easy to implement and the needed decoding circuit is also simple. Thermal neutrons are also produced by environmental radiation sources such as the decay of naturally occurring uranium or thorium. Controlling alpha particle emission rates for critical packaging materials to less than a level of 0.001 counts per hour per cm2 (cph/cm2) is required for reliable performance of most circuits.

  1. The failure of even a few products in the field, particularly if catastrophic, can tarnish the reputation of the product and company that designed it.
  2. in your book, Caves of Steel, published in the 1950s, you use an alpha particle emitter to 'murder' one of the robots in the story, by destroying ('randomizing') its positronic brain.
  3. See also[edit] Electronics portal Single event upset Radiation hardening References[edit] ^ Artem Dinaburg (July 2011). "Bitsquatting - DNS Hijacking without Exploitation" (PDF). ^ Gold (1995): "This letter is to inform you
  4. The ACPC hardware will correct the errors before the data enters into the dynamic configuration memory.
  5. ISSN1530-4388. ^ Franco, L., Gómez, F., Iglesias, A., Pardo, J., Pazos, A., Pena, J., Zapata, M., SEUs on commercial SRAM induced by low energy neutrons produced at a clinical linac facility,
  6. The bad data bit can even be saved in memory and cause problems at a later time.
  7. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.Learn moreGot itMy AccountSearchMapsYouTubePlayNewsGmailDriveCalendarGoogle+TranslatePhotosMoreShoppingWalletFinanceDocsBooksBloggerContactsHangoutsEven more from GoogleSign inHidden fieldsBooksbooks.google.com - Our investigation begins with deep analysis of how transient faults affect
  8. Soft errors involve changes to data—​​the electrons in a storage circuit, for example—​​but not changes to the physical circuit itself, the atoms.
  9. This involves increasing the capacitance at selected circuit nodes in order to increase its effective Qcrit value.

Soft Error Vs Hard Error

The sun does not generally produce cosmic ray particles with energy above 1GeV that are capable of penetrating to the Earth's upper atmosphere and creating particle showers, so the changes in A soft error is also a signal or datum which is wrong, but is not assumed to imply such a mistake or breakage. Soft Error Rate This reduces the range of particle energies to which the logic value of the node can be upset. Soft Error Rate Calculation the prevalence of ECC RAM in server computers).

Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view Cornell University Library We gratefully acknowledge support fromthe Simons Foundation and member institutions arXiv.org > cs > arXiv:1509.06891 Search check my blog Comments: Manuscript Subjects: Hardware Architecture (cs.AR) Citeas: arXiv:1509.06891 [cs.AR] (or arXiv:1509.06891v1 [cs.AR] for this version) Submission history From: Rourab Paul [view email] [v1] Wed, 23 Sep 2015 09:02:49 GMT (379kb) ISSN0018-9499. ^ Baumann, R.; Hossain, T.; Murata, S.; Kitagawa, H. (1995). "Boron compounds as a dominant source of alpha particles in semiconductor devices": 297–302. ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News. 30 (2): 99. Sem Ip Core

Your cache administrator is webmaster. The effect is fairly small in any case resulting in a ±7% modulation of the energetic neutron flux in New York City. Therefore, it is advantageous to design for low SER when manufacturing a system in high-volume or requiring extremely high reliability. this content In this way, the failure of one circuit due to soft error is discarded assuming the other two circuits operated correctly.

Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.Go to Google Play Now »Cost Effective Soft Error Mitigation in MicroprocessorsNicholas J. Soft Error Mitigation Xilinx Dell (1997). "A White Paper on the Benefits of Chipkill-Correct ECC for PC Server Main Memory" (PDF). Either of the charged particles (alpha or 7Li) may cause a soft error if produced in very close proximity, approximately 5µm, to a critical circuit node.

In this application the glass is formulated with a boron content of 4% to 5% by weight.

There are two types of soft errors, chip-level soft error and system-level soft error. IBM Journal of Research and Development. Typically, a semiconductor memory design might use forward error correction, incorporating redundant data into each word to create an error correcting code. Xapp864 We leverage those attributes and repurpose already existing microarchitectural components to derive a cost effective soft error mitigation solution, providing significant improvements in reliability.

Usually, only one cell of a memory is affected, although high energy events can cause a multi-cell upset. The susceptibility of devices to upsets is described in the industry using the JEDEC JESD-89 standard. This process may result in the production of charged secondaries, such as alpha particles and oxygen nuclei, which can then cause soft errors. have a peek at these guys One part will contain ACPC hardware, which is static and assumed to be unaffected by any kind of errors.

Tsuchiya, H. It is typically expressed as either the number of failures-in-time (FIT) or mean time between failures (MTBF). Correcting soft errors[edit] Main article: ECC memory Designers can choose to accept that soft errors will occur, and design systems with appropriate error detection and correction to recover gracefully. ece.cmu.edu.

The system returned: (22) Invalid argument The remote host or network may be down. Hard figures for DRAM susceptibility are hard to come by, and vary considerably across designs, fabrication processes, and manufacturers. 1980s technology 256 kilobit DRAMS could have clusters of five or six Your cache administrator is webmaster. For instance, many failures per million circuits due to soft errors can be expected in the field if the system does not have adequate soft error protection.

Radiation hardening is often accomplished by increasing the size of transistors who share a drain/source region at the node. Since a logic circuit contains many nodes that may be struck, and each node may be of unique capacitance and distance from output, Qcrit is typically characterized on a per-node basis. An SEU is electrically masked if the signal is attenuated by the electrical properties of gates on its propagation path such that the resulting pulse is of insufficient magnitude to be In the proposed scheme total configuration memory is partitioned into two parts.

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Get Help About IEEE Xplore Feedback Technical Support Resources and Help Terms of Use What Can I Access? Mukherjee, S, "Computer Glitches from Soft Errors: A Problem with Multiple Solutions," Microprocessor Report, May 19, 2008. ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News. 28 (2): 25–36.